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Research And Publication

This section focuses on three research instruments used, namely: The Self-Description Invetory (SDI), The Perceived Parental Behaviour Inventory (PPBI) and The Perceived Teacher Behaviour Inventory (PTBI). These Instruments are available in English, Afrikaans, French, IsiNdebele, IsiXhosa, IsiZulu, Sepedi, Setswana, Siswati, Tshivenda and Xitsonga. The SDI has also been used in the interational community for research purposes.
 
To follow are details of the Instruments and Papers published using the Schedules. To request copies of the instruments, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .
 
SDI I & II
The Self-Description Inventory (SDI) I & II. The Self-Description Inventory is a multifaceted self-concept instrument which measures self-esteem on a response scale which varies between ‘5 = I Agree Very Much’ and ‘1 = I Disagree Very Much’. A brief description of the SDI scales and examples of items are as follows:

  • Relations with family (FMLY). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of interactions with family. Examples are, ‘My family loves me’, ‘I feel my family does not care for me’ and ‘I feel I am an important member of my family’.
  • General school (SCHL). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of interest in and enjoyment of school in general. Examples are, ‘I like most school subjects’, ‘I enjoy the time I spend in class’ and ‘The work I do at school is very important to me’.

 

  • Physical abilities (PHYS). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of skills and interest in sports and physical activities. Examples are, ‘I enjoy sports and games’, ‘I am a good athlete’ and ‘I feel energetic most of the time’.
  • Physical appearance (APPR). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of physical appearance. Examples are, ‘I am satisfied with my appearance’, ‘I like the way I look’ and ‘My friends do not find me attractive’.
  • Emotional stability (EMOT). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of emotional stability. Examples are, ‘I do not cry easily’, ‘I get hurt easily when someone shouts at me’ and ‘Most of the time I feel unwell’.
  • Music ability (MUSC). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of interest in and enjoyment of music. Examples are, ‘I love music’, ‘When music is played or when people sing I feel good’ and 'Music to me does not make any difference’.
  • Relations with peers (PERS). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of interactions with peers. Examples are, ‘I am well liked by others of my age’, ‘It is difficult for me to make friends’ and ‘I feel that I am not well liked by others of my age’.
  • Health (HLTH). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of physical wellbeing. Examples are, ‘I am in good health’, ‘I care for my body to the best of my ability’ and ‘I feel happy with the state of my health’.
  • Global Self-concept.

 
To request this Instrument, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 
PPBI I & II
The Perceived Parental Behaviour Inventory (PPBI) I & II. The Perceived Parental Behaviour Inventory is a multidimensional instrument which measures perceived behaviours of parents on a response scale which varies between ‘5 = I Agree Very Much’ and ‘1 = I Disagree Very Much’. A brief description of the PPBI scales and examples follows:

  • Support, interest and encouragement (STCT). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of parents as being supportive, demonstrating interest in them and also being a source of encouragement. Examples are, ‘My parents support me in the things I do’, ‘My parents are concerned about what I do’ and ‘My parents encourage me to use my own ideas’.
  • Expectations (PTTN). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of parents' positive expectations. Examples are, ‘My parents want me to work hard at school’, 'My parents would like me to have good marks in school’ and ‘When I pass in this class my parents will want me to continue my studies’.
  • Participation (PTPN). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of parental participation in schoolwork. Examples are, ‘Most of the time my parents look at my schoolwork’, ‘My parents encourage me to complete my schoolwork’ and 'My parents discuss my progress in school with each other.'

 

To request this Instrument, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 
PTBI I & II
The Perceived Teacher Behaviour Inventory (PTBI) I & II. The Perceived Teacher Behaviour Inventory is a multidimensional instrument which measures the perceived behaviours of teachers on a response scale which varies between ‘5 = I Agree Very Much’ and ‘1 = I Disagree Very Much’. A brief description of the PTBI II scales and examples follows:

  • Support interest and encouragement (STCT). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of teachers as being supportive, demonstrating interest in them and also being a source of encouragement. Examples are, ‘My teachers care about me’, ‘My teachers make me feel confident in my schoolwork’ and ‘My teachers are satisfied with my school reports’.
  • Expectations (PTTN). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of teachers’ positive expectations. Examples are, ‘My teachers think I can do well at school’, ‘My teachers think that it is important for me to go to school and 'My teachers, think that I can continue my education after high school'.
  • Participation (PTPN). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of teachers' spending time and sharing activities with them. Examples are, 'My teachers know what I am studying in school', 'When I am doing my schoolwork, my teachers do not allow other things to interfere with it' and 'My teachers encourage me to stay at school and study'.
  • Nurturing (NTRG). This sub-scale refers to individuals' perceptions of teachers' behaviours that promote psychological growth. Examples are, 'My teachers treat me well', 'I feel I cannot tell my troubles freely to my teachers' and 'I want to be like my teachers'.

 
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PAPERS
The following papers were published in international journals using the Instruments mentioned above:

  • A new multidimensional measure of African adolescents’ perceptions of teachers’ behavior. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77, 419-426 (1994).
  • Cross-cultural study of the structure and level of multidimensional self-concept. Relations with age and gender among African adolescents. School Psychology International, 15, 163-171 (1994).
  • Multidimensional self-concept. Relations with age and gender among African adolescents. Educational Psychology, 14(3), 307-321 (1994).
  • A comparative analysis of the relationship between parenting styles and self-concepts of Black and White high school students. School Psychology International, 16, 19-27 (1995).
  • Gender differences in teachers’ behaviors in relation to adolescents’ self-concepts.   Psychological Reports, 77, 831-839 (1995).
  • Variations in parenting practices. Gender and age related differences in African adolescents. Adolescence, 30(120), 955-962 (1995).
  • Perceived family and school social environments and their relationships to African adolescents’ self-concepts. School Psychology International, 17, 133-148 (1996).
  • Self-concept and locus of control among South African adolescents.Psychological Reports, 79, 1235-1238 (1996).
  • Assessing the learning processes of Black South African students. Journal of Psychology, 131(6), 636-640 (1997).
  • Family environmental correlates of students’ affective characteristics: A South African study. Educational Studies, 23(2), 243-252 (1997).
  • Family relations and self-concepts of African adolescents: Gender related differences. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, XXIX (1), 201-213 (1998).
  • Self-concept of academic ability as a function of sex, age and academic achievement among African adolescents. Perceptual and Motor skills, 87, 155-161 (1998).
  • Family correlates of South African students’ self-concepts: A regression surface analysis. Psychological Reports, 83, 163-172 (1998).
  • Factors affecting the self-concepts of South African students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 138(5), 572-580 (1998).
  • Multiple dimensions of adolescent self-concept: Relations with age, gender and scholastic measures. School Psychology International, 20(4), 388-398 (1999).
  • Perceptions of parents’ support for learning: The influence of sibling’s size. Perceptual and Motor skills, 90, 907-910 (2000).
  • African adolescents and their teachers: Sex and rural-urban comparisons in perceived teacher behaviors. Psychological Reports, 86, 1229-1233 (2000).
  • Family and individual correlates of academic goal orientation: Social context differences in South Africa. Psychological Reports, 87, 373-380 (2000).
  • Age and gender differences in self-concept of South African students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(1), 148-149 (2001).
  • Family capital, goal orientations and South African adolescents’ self-concept: Moderation – mediation model. Educational Psychology, 21(3) 333-350 (2001).
  • Learning environments, goal orientations and interest in music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 52(12), 155-167(2004).

 
ARTICLES
Below are two articles written and published using the Instruments:

  • Differentiated and distinctive self-concept: An African perspective
  • A model for the international investigation of adolescents’ self-concept